Outline of Microbial Biotechnology Plant Construction Process
Outline of Microbial Biotechnology Plant Construction Processby Micro-Giant BioEngeering 2008.07.28Decide on production projects and annual yield.Fermentation flow chart planning - Manufacturing Process (P&ID)Estimated investment budget (Production revise budget refer to ROI and rate of return)Market analysis – price, competitors, marketing (channels)Provisional price – consider manufacturing costs (including raw materials, processing costs, energy consumption calculations, labor cost, equipment depreciation and amortization...) and market expected value.Plant selection (consider raw materials, transportation of products, man power, environmental impact assessment, wind direction, electricity, water supply)Plant and production line planning (depend on annual output expansion in the future 3~5 years and the reference market demand to analyze), pay attention to personnel, logistics lines, and prevent cross infection.Strain acquisition: strain source, strain preservation, strain improvement (strain screening, domesticated strain, and purification) to prevent strain variation, aging and inactivation.Production process staff arrangement: Production process personnel organization (laboratory RD, production operator, fermentation engineer and technical engineer) and regulations management methods.Marketing sales arrangement: sales, distributors, sales channel, and establishment of marketing networks.Administrative, accounting and management staff arrangements.Laboratory planning (with R&D, production process improvement and QC- qualitative and quantitative analysis of product activity or strain mass)Biotechnology plant raw material pretreatment (medium formulation) area and equipment.Strain scale up culture (fermentation) area and equipment.Back-end process (purification, separation, drying, concentration, abstraction... and sub-packaging) area and equipment.Central monitoring room.Storage equipment (including raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products and packaging materials)Utilities (electricity, process water - city water: soft water or pure water, production process equipment water – chilled water or room temperature water, steam, compressed air, special gases ex.O2, CO2, N, NH3)Exhaust gas and liquid treatment (including production process waste).Consideration of recycling or recycling of energy consumption in the production process.Production government subsidies and tax credit of investment.Product certification (FDA, GMP, cGMP...).<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Fermentation Equipment Validation and Testing Items
Fermentation Equipment Validation and Testing ItemsMicro-giant BioEngineering 2012.10.10Ⅰ.Document and AttachmentDocument: Material Certificate, Production Control Table, Welding Record, Surface Polishing Ra     Examination Report, Pressure Testing Report, Operation Manual, Equipment Outline Chart, P&ID Chart, Layout Chart, Electrical Loop Chart, Pressure Vessel Manufacture License, 3Q……etc.Attachment: Maintain tools x 1, Recent supply spare x1.Ⅱ. Factory Acceptance Test (FAT):According to the quoted specification execute FAT to confirm the specifications.Ⅲ. Pressurization and Sterility TestingThe Pressurization Test--Impose the tank body the maintain pressure test.  The tank pressure of 20psi, 24hr shall not be less than 15psi.Sterile Blank Test –Pass 72hr sterile test times and medium was sterilized after cooling. Take the sample coated on petri dish then culture for 72 hours to see the colony and microscopic examination , shall not be detected. (This test in addition to the main fermentor, also containing all of the feed tank and mixed tank)Thermophilles Test(Biological challenge testing)--Place the spores of the Thermophilc bacteria sterilization reagents multi-points in air sterilization filter, tanks (feed tank and mixed tank) inside and the bottom and Transfer pipe to start SIP. After SIP, culture or use interpretation machine to do rapid fluorescent interpretation, see sterilization whether completely.Ⅳ. Function Testing (Auto Control Microbial Liquid State Culture Equipment for kL level fermentors)Temp. Control:+5.0℃~60.0℃(PID),error ±0.2℃。Speed Control:30~300 RPM (stepless speed change) ,error ±1 rpm。pH Control:0.00~14.00 PH ,Precision Display pH ±0.01。Do Control:0.0~200.0% (PID control),Precision Display ±0.1%。AF Control: Delay, ON/OFF,  ALARM.AIR Flow Auto Adjustment System:0~2vvm(max. ventilation), error±0.3%L/min. Add Float Flowmeter to compare with the flow or switch to manual.Pressure Control:0.00~3.00kg/cm2  ,error ±0.02 kg/cm2。Ⅴ.Suitable Area:fermenter,fermentor,bioreactor,bioreacter.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
The biological reaction apparatus (Bioreactor) designed elementary
【The biological reaction apparatus (Bioreactor) designed elementary 】Micro-giant BioEngineering 2007.05.10Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology Department of Biotechnology speechReason:Life science brings the hope of the new century, and bioengineering technology gives the possibility to practice this hope. New energy alternatives, functional health food development, special chemical raw material replacement, protein medicine, environmental engineering, bacterial culture method, waste reduction or reuse, the anti-aging of medicine, the replacement of antibiotics, quality agriculture with biologics, enzymes for industrial food and feed...etc. They all use microbial manufacturing processes to try or successfully get results or improve. With the progress and complexity of new biotechnologies, it is more important to investigate the root causes, step-by-step research experiments, and practical operations. Therefore, "bioreactor" is an indispensable core technology for this purpose, which covers machinery, chemical industry, electronics, electrical machinery, automatic control, and microbiology six specialized fields. This chapter will continue the five professional fields mentioned above and focus on microbiology, trying to make a complete discussion based on my two cents and practical experience. 1. Broad definition:It refers to a device that uses chemical procedures to successfully carry out microbial proliferation, metabolism, or catalytic reactions (cell culture).2. Description of the device system instrument control flow chart: (See attached figure 1 for details)3. Device composition:3.1 Power unit3.2 Transmission unit (including mechanical seal group)3.3 Agitation system3.4 vessel3.5 Stainless Steel Shell and Tube Condenser3.6 Sterilization Control Valve3.7 Steam decompression and filtration system3.8 Temperature control piping valve3.9 Sterile ventilation control piping valve3.10 Exhaust gas tank pressure piping valve3.11 Dosing and feeding control valve3.12 Transfer inoculation transmission control valve (including sampling valve)3.13 Electrode (pH, O2, temperature, AF) and field relative instrument SENSOR (rotation speed, pressure), piping rack3.14 Instrument control electrical automatic control box3.15 Other attachments3.16 Utilities4. Description of each department:4.1 Power unit: Roughly composed by motor + reducer, commonly known as the motor reducer.Sometimes a cross steering gear is added or a reducer with the output shaft and the input shaft forming 90° is used due to the installation position. In the large (above 100kL) or part of the lower mixing tank with the pulley reduction structure, this model must pay attention to the problem of the slip and the driveshaft needs to be strengthened. The motor reducer can be divided into horizontal, vertical, and upside-down (sometimes used for lower magnetic stirrer without shaft seal) types according to the installation position. The calculation of horsepower and the different types of agitation systems (mainly impellers) and the influence of shear force on microorganisms will be discussed in a follow-up special issue.◎ Motor:Generally, it is necessary to consider the operating voltage, frequency (related to the area of use and power consumption), indoor or outdoor type, explosion-proof grade (partial hydrogen production or contents such as alcohol, etc., or use air motor), display transmission position (vertical, horizontal, inverted), rotational speed (number of poles), etc. Certainly, if it is used for pilot plant or Lab., the noise dB value should preferably be less than 70dB within 2 meters (the total noise value has other factors to be considered).◎Reducer:Generally, according to the transmission mode, it can be divided into planetary gear type, cycloidal gear type, and helical gear type.The selected factor is preferably pointed contact, because the angle of the incident angle of the contact surface does not change much, resulting in lower noise and higher transmission efficiency, especially suitable for fluid changes (turbulent flow, Reynolds number Re> 4,000) agitation use. For "transmission coefficient", please select "variable load".4.2 Transmission unit (including mechanical seal group): See attached figure 2 for details. It consists of the motor base, the transmission base, the transmission base board, the transmission shaft, the coupling, the bearing, the oil seal, and the mechanical shaft seal.◎Motor base:It is used to connect the motor reducer and transmission base. The early material was SS400 (black iron), and the surface was painted with sandblasting or paint. However, after two or three years of use in the fermentation factory, if the washing tank is wet or close to the sea breeze, the rustiness will cause rust powder to invade the bearing and even enter the shaft seal, causing abnormal transmission noise, and then damage.◎Transmission base:For placing shaft seals, bearings, and connecting cover plates. The material is the same as the above description. In addition to rigidity, the height of the transmission seat should be carefully paid attention to the problem of "transmission span". "Transmission span" refers to the distance between the upper and lower bearings. Insufficient transmission span will cause the swing angle of the stirring shaft to be too large, which will cause damage to the mechanical shaft seal in advance, resulting in poor airtightness or dead corners and contamination.◎the transmission base board:To undertake the transmission seat (if it is a small vessel, the flat cover is the transmission base board). The material should be the same as that of the inner tank wetted part, generally SUS316 or above 316L. When welding to the vessel, pay attention to the centrality and horizontal correction.◎the transmission shaft:Transfer the power of the power unit to the agitation unit. The general small vessel (below about 50L) is designed to be integrated in consideration of high speed, rigidity, and centrality (this means the transmission shaft = stirring shaft). The disadvantage is that it is difficult to maintain (when disassembling the transmission system). Fortunately, it can be ignored due to the small vessel is lighter. In addition, there are places on the transmission shaft that are in contact with bearings, oil seals, and shaft seals. Therefore, the surface needs to be plated with hard chrome to increase wear resistance, improve the life of the agitation shaft, and avoid biting and scratching the shaft surface to damage the airtightness. Especially because the transmission shaft is made of the same stainless steel as the wetted part, the rigidity and toughness are not as good as S45C (medium carbon steel) or SF (forged steel) steel. To have both corrosion resistance and wear resistance, the surface is electroplated with a layer of chromium (Cr) of about 0.03 ~0.06t mm, and the process of precision grinding cannot be omitted.◎Coupling:As its name implies, for connecting the output shaft of the motor reducer and the transmission shaft. Generally, chain transmission types CR series (small shaft diameter below 30 can use spider type) to transmit power. This type of flexible coupling can absorb 3~5 degree deflection angle, reduce transmission amplitude, and effectively transmit the maximum power. There is also a rigid coupling with flanged linkage (Key). It should be noted that the design concept of this model takes the output shaft of the reducer as the first span point on the upper part of the "transmission span", so do not design more than two span points, and the reducer is better to increase the size of the one.◎Bearing:For the first span point on the upper part, UKF or UCF block bearing can be used. Please note: It is necessary to add an inclined cone sleeve because it helps to automatically correct the assembly center during assembly. For the second span point in the lower part, it is recommended to use a set of self-aligning ball or roller bearings, plus an oil seal ring, to provide a lubricating oil filling port. Please note: Above 1,000rpm, select high-precision bearings with small ball clearance.◎(Mechanical) shaft seal:In the early days (about 20 years ago), a ground-type tightening strip (PTFE material) was used, and a tightening washer was added 3 to 6 times around the shaft to form a sealing material, but it has its shortcomings in use, so it is no longer used. Replaced with Mechanicals Seal. The mechanical shaft seal can be roughly divided into wet type and dry type according to the lubrication method. If the wet type is used, it must be noted that the lubricating fluid must be sterile water, and the sterile water generator must be set up in a single set of devices (One by one), which cannot be shared. To avoid contamination of a single set of sterile water, it will not affect other bioreactors in the plant. If Dry Mechanicals Seal is used, the above problems are exempted. The new mechanical shaft seal is provided with a cassette design, which can greatly reduce the technical requirements for equalizing pressure on the assembly surface, but due to the inner sleeve design, the increase in the shaft diameter leads to an increase in manufacturing costs. The mechanical shaft seal is roughly divided into a rotary ring and a fixed ring. The fixed ring can be made of tungsten carbide or ceramics, and the rotary ring can be made of graphite or carbon. Metal parts can be made of SUS316, SUS316L, or titanium. The shaft seal soft sealing material (ex. O ring or packing ring) is made of Viton or EPDM, and Teflon is not recommended. Because the grinding precision of the folding surface (for the grinding surface) is too high, the mirror adsorption effect will occur during the sterilization stage, and there will be slip when there is no dowel pin, which will destroy the soft sealing material. Mechanical shaft seals are used in the biotechnology industry. In addition to normal considerations, pay attention to the high temperature and cooling water (Drain) discharge problems generated by the moist heat sterilization method during the sterilization stage. Because maintaining 121°C for 20~30min during sterilization will result in residual condensed water. Therefore, the steam enters and exits up and down, so that there will be no dead angle resulting in incomplete sterilization of the shaft seal. In the design or selection of the shaft seal, it is necessary to pay attention to the design of thermal insulation. The fermented heat generated during the incubation period will transfer to the transmission system along the stirring shaft, which will cause the shaft seal or bearing seal to be damaged early.Ps. Pay attention to the design of the (mechanical) shaft seal, the first channel is the closest to the liquid contact part of the culture container, and other sealing materials ex. oil seals or other bearings cannot be added during this period. There is also no shaft seal design, such as magnetic stirring, but the transmission power leakage is large, and there are doubts about tripping. If it is in the lower part, because it occupies the lowest point, there will be doubts about residual material at the discharge port, and it is not used now.4.3 Agitation system: It is composed of agitator shafts, defoaming wings, impellers, baffles, shaft support bases and other parts.◎Agitator shaft:The material should be the same as that of the wetted part (usually SUS316 or SUS316L), and there is a flanged coupling on the upper end of the shaft to connect the drive shaft. At the junction with the impellers, for small (under 200L) pilot plant cultivation device vessels, set screws will be designed on the wheel shell of the stirring wing, but there must be 2 screws at 90° to each other to prevent sliding or shifting, and can easily change the propeller position. As for the medium and large culture, it is necessary to have a key way design. If it is necessary to change the position of the propeller, a long key must be designed for the impellers wheel housing to slide to the desired position and then lock it with set screws. If you are worried about impellers loosening and sliding, you can design a headed key below the long key. For medium and large (above 500L) culture tanks at the lower end of the shaft, a shaft support seat must be designed to reduce the offset of the stirring center.◎Defoaming wing:Also known as foaming wing or defoaming wing, it is a simple Impeller (flat paddle) design and is often used as one of the physical defoaming strategies. However, in practice, it is found that when the foaming overflows, most of them are attached to the bridging phenomenon and stacked along the barrel wall. Therefore, how to destroy the bridging of the barrel wall in the early stage of foam generation is the current physical defoaming strategy. New design. In addition, there is another design with both physical and chemical defoaming strategies, that is, the defoaming agent is passed through the lower edge of the defoaming wing, and then evenly sprinkled after the rotating action, so that the surface of the broth (Broth) is at the same dose. The surface area of the lower contact liquid surface is increased, and the effect of the defoamer is increased.◎Impellers:Generally, when aerobic organisms are cultivated, Turbine type (also known as Rushton type) is often used, which can be divided into six wings, four wings, inclined plates, and curved plates. For this common type, when the air sparger is too close to the stirring wing, bubbles will aggregate or flood, and when it is too far away, it is not easy to be broken and dispersed by the stirring wing. The turbine type is better than the propeller type. However, if it is an anaerobic or anaerobic biological culture, the focus of the blade type should be placed on the viscosity of the material or the form of solid content and the amount, and attention should be paid to precipitation.Ps. Pay attention to the turbine type airfoil design, the optimal tangential speed of the outer edge of the airfoil diameter is 2~5 M/sec operation.◎Baffles:It is placed on the wall of the container and can be divided into three groups (below 50L) or four groups. Its function is to increase the degree of turbulence during stirring, to achieve uniform temperature, uniform gas and solution transfer, and liquid medicine (acid, alkali, defoaming, etc.) and nutrient sources (nitrogen, carbon, trace elements) to add dispersity. And when the stirring is destroyed, the vortex phenomenon is generated in the center (that is, the eddy current is broken). In large-scale culture devices (above 50kL), due to the insufficient heat transfer area of the interlayer, special direct tube bundle replaces the original baffle position, which can not only increase the heat transfer area but also achieve a turbulent flow state. However, it relatively increases the difficulty of cleaning.◎Shaft support bases:In medium and large-scale (500L or more) culture devices, due to the lengthening of the suspension shaft, a shaft support seat is designed at the end of the stirring shaft to support the stirring shaft, which can absorb the deflection and increase the transmission stability. The lining design can absorb the corresponding force, but is not responsible for axial stress. The material is mainly Teflon (Teflon), and sometimes glass fiber is added to increase the hardness. PEEK is a good choice when considering strong acid or alkali and hardness.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Sterile Technical Instructions
【Sterile Technical Instructions】Micro-giant BioEngineering  2009.06.19  In the basic pre-processing of the (purebred) microbial culture and fermentation process, the first priority is to create and maintain a sterile environment. To avoid the interference of bacteria in the cultivation process and affect the yield rate, or even cause failure or variation (especially the metabolism of secondary products). To make a provision of sterile technical instructions for equipment concerns as follows:1. No dead-angle designAll wetted parts inside the fermentation vessels must not have a right-angle arc design, and the length (neck) of the stop valve or blind cover with the nearest pipe port must be less than 2d (inner pipe diameter). All parts with a secondary online sterilization pipeline must have the concept of a sterilization buffer room, ex. sampling valve (tube), dosing feed tube, transfer tube, shaft seal... All wetted parts use diaphragm valves or at least food & pharmaceutical sanitary valves (but need to take care of the sterilization methods).2. Complete sterilizationIn principle, the sterilization method adopts the high temperature and high pressure (SIP) sterilization method, which mainly uses the enthalpy in the superheated steam to achieve the sterilization effect. If it is SIP, pay more attention to the concept of air and automatic sterilization. Whether sterilization is complete is related to the following four elements:2.1 Temperature:In principle, the temperature in the high temperature and high pressure (SIP) sterilization method should be 121 °C (if it is intended for Thermophile spores, it must be higher and accompanied by three times of air sterilization and cooling). Although the higher temperature is easier to sterilize, it may cause the nutrients in the culture medium to be destroyed.2.2 Pressure:The sterilization pressure is generally set between 1.2~1.5kg/cm2, but the place where the pressure SENSOR is placed must be considered (there will be a slight difference between the top of the vessels and the exhaust gas). The concept of "pressure" here still attaches importance to the sterilization and heating process. The sterilization temperature must rise symmetrically with the sterilization pressure. If there is an abnormality, it may be that cold air remains, which will affect the sterilization effect.2.3 Time:This refers to the time during sterilization after reaching the sterilization temperature. Generally, it is set between 20 and 40 minutes (liquid fermentation). Note that if the temperature drops below the sterilization temperature in the middle, the timing must be recalculated, and the reasons should be reviewed to avoid it.2.4 Flow:It would be a futile effort without flow even with temperature, pressure, and time. The steam for sterilization must be introduced from the upper part, and an exhaust valve (to remove condensed water) is made at the lowest position to ensure the sterilization effect of the steam. Therefore, all pipelines that need to be sterilized must be equipped with a small exhaust valve (or even a sanitary trap), especially the T-type valve is the best.3. Maintain positive pressureTo ensure that the sterilization effect can be maintained continuously, it is very important to maintain the positive pressure of the system from sterilization to harvest. It is generally maintained with sterile air filtered to at least 0.2 μm. Therefore, in the event of a power outage, the system must be able to keep the positive pressure for at least 12 hours, so the selection of all automatic valves should consider the state of the power outage (use the N.C. type). When the sterilization process enters the cooling section, too fast pressure relief can easily cause a bumping phenomenon, so the cooling method must be adopted in stages. If the cooling is too fast, there will be concerns about local negative pressure, especially at the exhaust, an exhaust filter can be installed to prevent reverse pressure pollution. However, it should be noted that the exhaust filter is easily blocked by moisture. Therefore, it is necessary to install an electric heater to heat the filter housing to avoid it.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Electro polishing for stainless steel - EP
【Electro Polishing for Stainless Steel - EP 】Micro-giant BioEngineering 2009.06.191. Features:The stainless steel workpiece is used as an anode, immersed in a special electrolyte then energized.  The surface of the workpiece will be electrolyzed to obtain a smooth and glossy surface. This method is called "Electro Polishing" (EP), "Electrochemical Polishing" or "Electrolyte Polishing".2. Comparison with mechanical polishing:ProjectMechanical polishingElectrolytic polishingShape and sizeCan handle large objects such as vessels, but cannot handle complex shapes, small parts, and thin platesIt can process complex shapes, small parts, and thin plates, but it is limited by the electrolytic cell and has processing size restrictions. Generally, only the fermenter below 1kL can be electrolyzed.Processing characteristics (1)The use of cutting and grinding to make the metal surface smooth and shiny will cause the crystallization of stainless steel metal to deteriorate and produce plastic deformation.No grinding and no plastic deformationProcessing characteristics (2)Tissue changes due to local heating. And will leave abrasive materials and grease on the metal surface, which must be treated separately to obtain a clean surface.The surface is cleaned after machiningCorrosion resistancePoorThe grinding surface is corrosion resistantLusterBrighter, but harder to maintainGloss lasts longerEnvironmentDustyNone3. Comparison with chemical polishing:ProjectChemical polishingElectrolytic polishingChemicalsChemicalsUse electricity instead. An electrolytic polishing bath has a long life and can be used for a long time.EnvironmentPolluting gasesNoneMetal surfaceNormalGlossierCorrosion resistancePoorThe corrosion resistance of the abrasive surface is better.LusterPoorlasting gloss3. Range of applications and features:Stainless steel electropolishing is widely used in the semiconductor industry and other instruments, such as kitchen utensils, sanitary ware, handicrafts, and other manufacturing industries, as well as valves, joints, pipe fittings, seamless pipes, fluid control components, etc. Stainless steel laser cutting workpieces can be used to remove the burrs generated by laser cutting of stainless steel, remove oxides on the surface of stainless steel, obtain a smooth and clean surface, increase the corrosion resistance of the workpiece, improve the reflectivity, and it will not be affected by the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
DO oxygen-rich technical description
【DO oxygen-rich technical description】Micro-giant BioEngineering  2009.06.19In the process of microbial culture, if it is aerobic bacteria (some facultative bacteria, depending on the metabolic status), there is often an urgent need for a large amount of oxygen in a certain culture stage, so the high dissolved oxygen (DO CASCADE) control strategy is explained as follows: (Note that high dissolved oxygen is often accompanied by a large amount of foaming in high-density fermentation)1. Agitation speed:In the process of liquid fermentation, the mass and energy can be transferred quickly through effective agitation, and it also includes the improvement of the degree of oxygen in the air dissolved in the fermentation liquid. However, excessive agitation speed will cause a sharp increase in shear force, so each time the computer increases or decreases the speed setting value, it needs to wait for a while, observe the change of the DO value, and then automatically correct it. And it must be accompanied by the upper and lower limit settings of the speed to limit the variation factor to be adjusted within a certain range, not to increase or decrease the speed without limit to achieve the DO setting value. However, if the upper limit is reached and the dissolved oxygen cannot be increased to the expected value, the program can automatically transfer to the next control strategy by setting. This automatic transfer control strategy, the object is not a direct object and has the control of "transfer" and "indirect" The method is called CASCADE.2. Ventilation:Increasing ventilation is often a more direct and effective way. However, when it increases to a certain level, it shows a significant slowdown, and the DO value does not increase. Therefore, the maximum ventilation vvm at the beginning of the hardware design is a certain value. Considering factors such as dispersion capacity, bubble retention time, pathway, and body surface area, just increasing the ventilation volume will limit the value, and it will easily promote the formation of foam, which becomes another Major troubled project. Therefore, by setting the upper and lower limits to find the appropriate ventilation volume. If the DO target value is not reached, it can be controlled by the next control factor through the "CASCADE" control to make it suitable in time.3. The vessel pressure:Increase the vessel pressure to increase the bubble residence time. However, the changeable range of the vessel pressure is usually not large (0.1~0.5kg/cm2), because overpressure is not conducive to the growth of most microorganisms, and only the vessel pressure above 0.5kg/cm2 can significantly increase DO, so this strategy is not used now.4. Oxygen:Use the "CASCADE" mode with O2 setting to control the appropriate ventilation volume, so that it can be activated to add O2 when other control factors reach the upper limit, to achieve the concept of effective and energy saving. When adding O2, pay attention to the source pressure setting. Generally, the O2 line must be > Air line 0.2kg/cm2 or more and a non-return valve must be installed. Pure oxygen cannot be directly injected into the fermentation vessels, and a gas mixer must be added to mix with air in a certain proportion before entering the tank. The above slender vessel design is combined with the aeration ring and dispersion type blade (appropriate diameter and number of segments) to achieve uniform dissolved oxygen distribution.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Chemical composition and characteristics of stainless steel sanitary pipe
【Chemical composition and characteristics of stainless steel sanitary pipe】1. Purpose:Stainless steel pipe has anti-corrosion properties because of its composition. This article discusses the composition of stainless steel sanitary pipe and understands the influence of the composition on the characteristics of stainless steel, to facilitate the public to understand the differences between various materials. The source of chemical composition data is based on the National Standards of the Republic of China (CNS).2. Type and composition of stainless steel:The main component of stainless steel is iron, and the rest are composed of different proportions of metals and carbon, among which chromium (Cr) is the largest. There are about 180 kinds of stainless steel in the market according to different proportions. This article focuses on Austenitic stainless steel, The discussion items are 304, 304L, 316, and 316L. This type of stainless steel is the most common in the market. The material is stable, non-toxic, acid and alkali resistant, non-magnetic, and most of the stainless steels recognized by the public are of this type. Types of symbolsCSiMnPSNiCrMo304 TBS0.08↓1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓0.030↓8.00-10.5018.00-20.00-304L TBS0.030↓1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓0.030↓9.00-13.0018.00-20.00-316 TBS0.08↓3.5L1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓10.00-14.0016.00-18.002.00-3.00316L TBS0.030↓1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓0.030↓12.00-15.0016.00-18.002.00-3.00Type of metalCharacteristicChromium(Cr)Significantly increases the potential of the steel-based electrode and improves the resistance to electrochemical corrosion, but it is not a linear relationship. Chromium must account for 12% to make the electrode potential change. The alloy composition of chromium and steel can form dense Cr2O3 in the outer layer to protect the interior from oxidation. At normal temperature, a sufficient amount of Cr-Ni matrix can make the steel obtain single-phase ferrite or single-phase austenite.Nickel(Ni)304 contains 8% Ni, and 316 contains 10%. If stainless steel has more nickel, it will be more durable and corrosion-resistant. In places where pollution or chemicals are often contacted, 316L is used as the material of stainless steel.Carbon(C)Carbon can increase rigidity, but conversely makes mechanical strength worse. Low carbon can make stainless steel heat-treated, and can also make steel more corrosion-resistant.Molybdenum(Mo)The addition of molybdenum allows it to obtain a special structure that makes it resistant to chloride corrosion and can be used in highly corrosive environments such as high salt, seaside or chemical.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
The passivation treatment of stainless steel
【The passivation treatment of stainless steel】Micro-Giant BioEngineering 2003.10.241.The passivation treatment of austenitic stainless steel:1.1  Except for 303 and 303 Se, all 300 series chromium-nickel stainless steels may be used. 20-40% HNO3 (volume concentration), 130-160°F, 30-60 minutes.1.2 Specifically for use with 303 and 303 Se20% HNO3 (volume concentration) plus 2% sodium dichromate (weight concentration), 110~130°F, 30 minutes. After taking out and cleaning, do the following treatment. Immerse in 140~160°F, 5% (weight concentration) sodium dichromate solution for 1 hour. After removing, rinse thoroughly in hot water and dry.2. The passivation treatment of ferritic stainless steel:2.1 430, 442, and 446 use20~40% HNO3 (volume concentration), 130~160°F, 30~60 minutes.2.2 405, 430F, and 430F Se use20~40% HNO3 (volume concentration), 110~130°F, 30~60 minutes.2.3 Highly polished 405, 430, 442, and 446 use50% HNO3 (volume concentration), 90~100°F, 30~60 minutes. After removing, rinse thoroughly in hot water and dry.3. The passivation treatment of martensitic stainless steel3.1 403, 410, 414, 420, 431, 440A, 440B and 440C useAt room temperature, 70% HNO3 (volume concentration) for 30~60 minutes, or immersion in 20~30% HNO3 (volume concentration) plus 2% (weight concentration) sodium dichromate or potassium dichromate solution, 70~112°F, 15 to 30 minutes. After removing, rinse thoroughly in hot water and dry.3.2 16 dedicatedImmerse in 15% (volume concentration) nitric acid, 1-1/2" pounds of sulfuric acid per 10 gallons, 110-125°F, 15-30 minutes. After removing, rinse thoroughly in hot water and dry.3.3 All martensitic stainless steel can be usedImmerse in 120-130°F, 50% (volume concentration) HNO3 for 5 minutes. After removing, rinse thoroughly in hot water and dry. Note: This quick treatment method can be used for all types of stainless steel without etching concerns.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
The corrosion resistance of stainless steel containers to different sulfuric acid concentrations
【Corrosion effect of sulfuric acid concentration on stainless steel】Edited by CAI ZHONG CHAO1. Purpose:Stainless steel is resistant to most acids and bases, such as nitric acid and acetic acid, but sulfuric acid attacks stainless steel. Different concentrations of sulfuric acid have different corrosion effects on stainless steel, and stainless steels with different compositions are also different. This article mainly discusses the effects of different concentrations of sulfuric acid on stainless steel 304 and 316L, and how to prevent sulfuric acid from eroding stainless steel.2. Stainless steel introduction:304: Universal model, 18/8 stainless steel. China current national label is 06Cr19Ni10, replacing the previous 0Cr18Ni9. The standard composition is 18% chromium plus 8% nickel. It is stainless steel that is non-magnetic and cannot be changed by heat treatment.316L: 316 is the second most widely used steel grade after 304, mainly used in the food industry and surgical equipment, adding molybdenum to obtain a special structure that is resistant to corrosion. Grade 18/10 stainless steels generally also meet this application level. Especially used in chemical, seaside, other corrosive environments, ship assembly, and building materials. 316L is a low carbon and more corrosion resistant. 316L stainless steel has good corrosion resistance at room temperature with a sulfuric acid concentration of less than 15% or greater than 85%. There is a certain temperature fluctuation above 80 degrees, and its corrosion resistance is greatly reduced. The corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel itself is relatively poor in 45% dilute sulfuric acid medium, and its corrosion resistance is even worse if there is a certain temperature fluctuation.3. Sulfuric acid is used in industry:As one of the strong corrosive media, sulfuric acid is a very widely used industrial raw material. But different concentrations and temperatures of sulfuric acid, the corrosion of the material is quite different. For concentrated sulfuric acid with a concentration of more than 85% and a temperature of less than 80 °C, carbon steel and cast iron have better corrosion resistance, but it is not suitable for high-speed flowing sulfuric acid. Ordinary stainless steel such as 304, 316 sulfuric acid medium is also limited in use. Therefore, the delivery of sulfuric acid is usually made of high-silicon cast iron and high-alloy stainless steel. Fluoroplastics have better resistance to sulfuric acid, and fluorine-lined manufacturing is a more economical choice. We tested the ceramic coating, and the results showed that it has good resistance to diluting sulfuric acid, but the cost of ceramics is high, and there are cost considerations.4. Conclusion:The sulfuric acid solution with a concentration of 15% to 85% has a high degree of corrosion on stainless steel. Although the resistance of 316L is stronger than that of 304, it will still be corroded. The temperature has a stronger effect on corrosion. At present, it is known that fluorine-lined manufacturing and ceramic cladding can be used, but through experience, fluorine will peel off and cause the inner stainless steel to be eroded. Although ceramics have good corrosion resistance, the cost will be one of the considerations.Reference:(1)Wikipediahttp://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B8%8D%E9%8F%BD%E9%8B%BC(2)Yahoo Bloghttp://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/jw!PqicSU.fER.58omp8oo-/article?mid=69(3)Baidu knowhttp://zhidao.baidu.com/question/230541560.html?fr=qrl& cid=985&index=4&fr2=query後段製程生產設備<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Discussion on the use of steam hot water recovery system in the fermentation process
【Discussion on the use of steam hot water recovery system in the fermentation process】Micro-Giant Bioengineering  2013.11.61. The cost of the equipment increases, but it is not often used:To add a hot water recovery vessel and a high temperature pump, condensation recovery pipes must be configured, increasing the investment cost. It can only be used for sterilization and temperature control of the fermentation tank. The actual function is not large, and the equipment recovery is slow.2. Increase the configuration of high temperature return water pipeline:For the condensed water of all sterilization lines, a high temperature recovery pipe and accessories (Trip) must be added separately, which increases the system space and makes the operation inconvenient.3. There is back pressure, which may cause incomplete sterilization.4. The high temperature return pipe is prone to contain Medium, and volatiles produced by boiling or sudden boiling on the surface may cause the failure of the high temperature return water system.To sum up, if you want to use the steam hot water recovery system in the fermentation process, you must make a comprehensive plan and consider it carefully.   <All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
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