The Purpose of Building a Microbial Cultivation Biotechnology Factory
Outline of Biotechnology Factory Establish Processby Micro-Giant BioEngeering 2008.07.28Decide Producing Items, Annual Production.Fermentor Technics Procedure Planning -> Manufacturing Process (P & ID)Investment Budgetary Estimate (Refer to recover all investment and ROI to adjust budget)Market Analysis – Price, Competitor, Marketing ModeTentative Selling Price – Deliberating Cost of Overheads (raw materials, processing charges, energy-consuming, HR cost, equipment depreciate amortization…) and Expected Value.Factory Location (Considering raw materials, transportation of products, human resources, evaluation of environment, wind direction, electricity, water supply)Factory and Production Line Planning (Depend on annual production expansion in the future 3~5 years deliberating the quantity demanded for market analysis.) Be careful with personnel flow and material flow route also prevents contamination.Bacteria Getting: resource, conservation, improvement. (Take note of selection and domestication.) Prevent variation, aging and inactivate.Manufacturing Process Staff Arrangement: Manufacturing Process Human Resource Organization(RD、operation staff、engineer and equipment engineer) and Article Administer Method.Marketing Sales Arrangement: sales, dealer, promote base, marketing net establishmentAdministrative staff, Accountants, Officers and Executives ArrangementLaboratory Planning ( Including RD, manufacturing process improvement and QC—activity and qualitative,  quantitative analysis of microbial mass)Biotechnology Factory  raw material pre-processing area( culture medium formula) and EquipmentBacteria Scale Up Cultivation and Fermentation Area and Equipment.Backend Process Procedure (purify, separate, desiccate, condense, extract, repackage) Area andEquipmentCentral Security Operation OfficeWarehouse Equipments (Including raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products and packaging)Public Utility (electric power, PCW— city water: soft water or pure water, manufacturing process equipment water: ice water or normal temp. water, vapor, compressed air, special gases like O2, CO2, N, NH3)Exhaust Gas and Exhaust Liquid HandlingManufacturing Process Energy Reuse and RecycleDeduction of Investment Cost of Government SubsidyProduct Authentication<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Fermentation Equipment Validation and Testing Items
Fermentation Equipment Validation and Testing ItemsMicro-giant BioEngineering 2012.10.10Ⅰ.Document and AttachmentDocument: Material Certificate, Production Control Table, Welding Record, Surface Polishing Ra     Examination Report, Pressure Testing Report, Operation Manual, Equipment Outline Chart, P&ID Chart, Layout Chart, Electrical Loop Chart, Pressure Vessel Manufacture License, 3Q……etc.Attachment: Maintain tools x 1, Recent supply spare x1.Ⅱ. Factory Acceptance Test (FAT):According to the quoted specification execute FAT to confirm the specifications.Ⅲ. Pressurization and Sterility TestingThe Pressurization Test--Impose the tank body the maintain pressure test.  The tank pressure of 20psi, 24hr shall not be less than 15psi.Sterile Blank Test –Pass 72hr sterile test times and medium was sterilized after cooling. Take the sample coated on petri dish then culture for 72 hours to see the colony and microscopic examination , shall not be detected. (This test in addition to the main fermentor, also containing all of the feed tank and mixed tank)Thermophilles Test(Biological challenge testing)--Place the spores of the Thermophilc bacteria sterilization reagents multi-points in air sterilization filter, tanks (feed tank and mixed tank) inside and the bottom and Transfer pipe to start SIP. After SIP, culture or use interpretation machine to do rapid fluorescent interpretation, see sterilization whether completely.Ⅳ. Function Testing (Auto Control Microbial Liquid State Culture Equipment for kL level fermentors)Temp. Control:+5.0℃~60.0℃(PID),error ±0.2℃。Speed Control:30~300 RPM (stepless speed change) ,error ±1 rpm。pH Control:0.00~14.00 PH ,Precision Display pH ±0.01。Do Control:0.0~200.0% (PID control),Precision Display ±0.1%。AF Control: Delay, ON/OFF,  ALARM.AIR Flow Auto Adjustment System:0~2vvm(max. ventilation), error±0.3%L/min. Add Float Flowmeter to compare with the flow or switch to manual.Pressure Control:0.00~3.00kg/cm2  ,error ±0.02 kg/cm2。Ⅴ.Suitable Area:fermenter,fermentor,bioreactor,bioreacter.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
The biological reaction apparatus (Bioreactor) design ELEMENTARY
【The beginning design of Bioreactor 】Micro-giant BioEngineering 2007.05.10Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology speechReason:Brought the hope of the new century, life sciences, bio-engineering technology assigns may practice a hope. New energy alternatives, functional health food development, specialty chemical raw materials to replace protein drugs, environmental engineering bacteria culture engineering methods, abandonedwas debulking or reuse, medicine cosmetic anti-aging, replacement of antibiotics, biologics quality agriculture, industrial food and feed enzymes ... all these are tried or successful results or improve microbial processes with the technology of modern biotechnologyby leaps and bounds and the increasing complexity of the actual occurrence of exploring chase source, step-by-step experiments and practical operation is becoming increasingly important.bioreactordevice (bioreactor) "essential core technology to achieve that purpose, this core technology covering machinery,chemical, electronics, electrical machinery, automation and microbiology the six specialist in the field, now take this space will come top five specialist surround Microbiology spindle, trying to make the personal the thin cotton humble opinion and practical experience engaged as much as possible to improve the speaking explore. One、The broad definition: refers specifically to a chemical process applied to microbial proliferation, metabolic or catalytic reaction can be carried out smoothly device.Two、The device system instrumentation flowchart said: (See attached) Three、Device is composed of:Power unitTransmission unit (including mechanical seal group)Mixing systemSlot monomerStainless steel shell and tube condenserSterilization control valveSteam decompression and filtering systemTemperature control piping manifoldsSterile ventilation control pipe valve block 10. The exhaust tank pressure piping manifoldsThe dosing feed material control valveTransfer inoculation transmission control valve (including sampling manifolds)Electrodes (pH, O2, temperature, AF) and the scene relative instrument the SENSOR (speed, pressure), the pipe rackInstrumentation and control electrical automatic control boxOther accessoriesUtilitiesFour、Ministries description:Power unit:Roughly posed by motor + reducer, commonly known as motor reducer.Sometimes due to installation of the positional relationship between the increase in cross steering or the output shaft and the input shaft 90 ° to the reducer, large (100kL) or part of the lower part of the stirred tank using a pulley deceleration mechanism, but this section should be noted Slipand driveshaft rigidity required to enhance motor reducer according to the installation position into horizontal, vertical and upside down (sometimes lower magnetic sealless stirring used) type, horsepower Department of Computing and stirring systems (mainly br />; for stir wing) type and shear force (shear force) on the impact of micro-organisms will be another follow-up special issue.◎ Motor:General need to consider the operating voltage, frequency (associated with the use of the area and power consumption), inside the house or outside the house, Explosion levels (part of the production of hydrogen or contents such as alcohol ... and so on, or switch to air motor), furnishings transmission position (Li, lying down style), speed (number of poles). course for pilot plant or Lab. use noise dB value best 2m <70dB (noise gross that there are other factors to be considered).◎ Reducer:Generally in accordance with the way of the drive can be divided into planetary, Planetary, cycloidal gear, helical gear ... Reference factors point contact is better due to the contact surface into the corner to ease, resulting in lower noise and get higherthe transmission efficiency, especially for fluid movements in (turbulent flow turbulent flow, Reynolds number Re> 4,000) for stirring the "transmission coefficient" please use the "load" of change.Transmission unit (including mechanical seal group):Drawings - see photoBy the parts of the motor base, driving seat, driving seat board, drive shafts, couplings, bearings, oil seals and mechanical shaft seal group.◎ Motor Mount:Convergence the motor reducer driving seat with the early material the SS400 (Heitie) surface sand blasting or paint coating, the fermentation plants use fermentation but after two or three years, wet wash tank or offshore wind, the occurrence of corrosion caused by rust powder invasion into the bearingeven enter the shaft seal, drive different sound then damaged. amended to read today SUS304 stainless steel, electrolytic polished surface plus excellent corrosion resistance.◎ Driving seat:Placed shaft seals, bearings and top-cover with material Ibid instructions, in addition to rigid, the height of the driving seat, need to be cautious attention to the transmission span, the so-called "drive span" refers to the upper and lower bearingthe distance span of less than will procure stirring shaft swing partial pieces of angle is too large, and early leak caused by mechanical seal damage, resulting in the airtight adverse or produce dead ends occur Ranjun.◎ Driving seat board:Undertake the driving seat (for small groove, flat cover drive base plate), the material the same within the groove of wetted parts generally SUS316 or 316L grade. Welding to Tongcao container to be the center of attention degree andhorizontal correction.◎ Transmission shaft:Successfully passed the power unit of the power to the mixing unit with generally small groove (about 50L), designed to be integrated to consider the problem of high-speed, rigid and centrality (ie, drive shaft = stirring shaft), but the disadvantage is less susceptible to maintain (decomposition transmission system), but fortunately, the small groove lighter, it can be ignored due to another drive shaft with bearings, oil seals, shaft seal contact at, had to design hard chrome plated to increase wear resistance, improve mixingshaft life and avoid bites scratches axial plane to destroy the air tightness, especially due to the same drive shaft as with material of wetted parts made of stainless steel, rigidity and toughness than S45C (medium carbon steel) or SF (Forged) steels actual occurrence for bothcorrosion and wear-resistant, surface plating layer of chromium (Cr) about of 0.03 ~~ 0.06tmm then subjected to precision grinding of the program can not be omitted.◎ Couplings :As the name suggests link the output shaft and the shaft of the motor reducer of general chain pass-CR series (small shaft diameter 30 can be used spider glue type) to convey the power models interference coupling can absorb 3 to 5 degrees of partialswing angle to reduce the transmission amplitude, but also the effective transmission power. otherwise shall design This design should be noted that their philosophy is to decelerate the machine output shaft rigid coupling flanges bonded (Key)the transmission span "of the upper span point, so please do not be designed to go beyond the two o'clock over the span point reducer best to improve on the 1st Specifications.◎ Bearing:Upper span point, can be used the UKF or a UCF Pillow Block Bearing, attention to the need to add tapered sleeve the automatically help group immediately assembled center degrees positive point in the lower part of the second span, it is recommended that automatic alignment ball ora set of roller bearings in pairs plus oil seal provides lubricants add mouth. to select ball gap value of small high-precision grade bearings need to pay attention to more than 1,000 rpm.◎ (Mechanical) shaft seal :Early (about 20 years ago), Grand (Ground) type packing (PTFE material) to 3 to 6 laps around the shaft packing washer combination into a sealed timber, but its shortcomings no longer using,changed to replace the mechanical seal (Mechanicals Seal). mechanical shaft seal is divided roughly according to the lubrication method both wet and dry lubricant should be noted that the use of wet sterile water and sterile water generator must be a single set ofset a group of devices (One by one), can not be shared. avoid a single set of sterile water contamination will not affect other sets of bioreactor plant production using dry-(dry Mechanicals Seal), are exempt from the above-mentioned problems. new machineryshaft seal has a cartridge design, can significantly reduce the assembly surface equal pressure force of the technical requirements, but within the casing design, so the shaft diameter to increase the 1st induced increase in manufacturing costs. mechanical seal broadly divide slewing ring and retaining ringtwo parts, retaining ring material can be used tungsten carbide or ceramic, while slewing ring graphite rings or tungsten carbide metal part of the material can be used SUS316, SUS316L or titanium. shaft seal soft sealing material (ex. O ring or gasket) are using Vitonor EPDM material, does not recommend Teflon, easily fold surfaces (ie grinding) excessive precision grinding, sterilization segment mirror sucking effect, nor the positioning pin will generate Slip destruction of the soft seal material. mechanical axisclosure for the biotech industry, in addition to the normal considerations, yet extraordinarily should be noted that in the sterilization segment arising moist heat sterilization method, high temperature and cooling water (Drain) emissions will cause condensation because sterilization 121 ° C is maintained for 20 to 30minwater residue, so the steam progress under a difficult to produce dead ends, resulting in the shaft seal is not completely sterilized. seal design or select, pay attention to have a thermal break design considerations, the fermentation heat generated due to the cultivation cycle will be extendedforward to stirring shaft up the heat convey accumulated to transmission system, prompting shaft seal or bearing seal material damage early.Ps.Note (mechanical) shaft seal design, the first from the culture vessel wetted recent Department, during the non-plus other seal material ex. Seal or bearing.Another shaft seal design, such as magnetic stirring, but to convey the power leakage larger, and escape the worries is the lower part, due to occupy the lowest lows, it is out of the discharge port design there will be a salvage doubts, nowlittle used.Mixing system:Department of stirring shaft, breaking foam wing, stirring wing, baffle, shaft support blocks and other parts.◎ Stirring shaft:The same material should be wetted portion (generally SUS316 or SUS316L) flange coupling shaft end design in order to converge the drive shaft in the culture tank with stirring wing junction, small pilot production (200L), oftenSet Screw design stirring wing wheels, but there should be two mutually 90 °. prevent the decline or shift, but also convenient to change the position of the paddle and you have to have a keyway (key way) as for the medium and large designboth have to change paddle bit, you have to design long bond, for stirring wing wheels slide to the desired location with Set Screw locking If you are worried the stirring wing loose decline in long button belowdo take the lead in key design. culture tank shall be designed shaft supports seat in order to narrow the agitation center offset axis end in large (500L).◎ Breaking foam wing:Also known as foam hit the wing or defoaming wing design for easy Impeller (flat paddle-type), often as a kind of physical defoaming strategy, not burden stirring momentum effect, and it can not hit other parts Rotary Trail,try to lengthen. practice bubble generates overflow (Foaming), mostly along the tank wall attachment in accordance with the the bridging phenomenon stack up. therefore undermining Tongbi bridge early in the foam generated is the new design of the physical defoaming strategyin addition there are designs both physical and chemical defoaming strategy that is defoamer through broken bulbs wing lower edge of the rotary action do spill out evenly, so that the fermentation broth (Broth) surface in the same doseThe surface area of contact with the liquid level increase, increase defoamer effect.◎ Stirring wings :General aerobic training biological cultivation wheel models (Turbine, also known as Rushton type) can be divided into 6 wing, four-wing, swash plate, curved plate a variety of changes. Cikuan commonly used type Department because the ventilation device (Air sparger) too oftennearly stirring wing the polymerization or flooding of the bubble, too far nor easily stir the wing to break dispersed, so measured both high ventilation and dispersed bubble wheel models fins is better than the the ship propeller type (propeller type) but ifconsider biological culture for anaerobic gas or anaerobic training, emphasis should be placed in the form and amount of sexual material viscosity or solid ingredients, and pay attention to the precipitation in the form of paddle.Ps.Note that the wheel models flap design, the optimum tangential velocity of the outer edge of the wing diameter of 2 ~ 5 M / sec operation.◎ Apron(Baffles):Placed in the container Tongbi upright, can be divided into three groups (50L) or four groups and its purpose is to increase the turbulence degree of agitation to achieve uniform average temperature, gas and liquid delivery, the drug solution (pH defoam) and nutritionsource (nitrogen, carbon, trace elements) adds a degree of dispersion and destruction stirred center swirl phenomenon (i.e. rid vortex) in the large-scale culture device (50kL above), due to the laminated heat transfer area, and therefore special straight row bundles substitutedoriginal damper position, so not only increase the heat transfer area and can be reached spoiler state but the relative increase in cleaning difficult.◎ Shaft support seat :In the culture device in a large (500L), hanging shaft lengthened shaft support base of support mixing shaft, at the end of the stirring shaft design, it can absorb yaw, increase driving stability. Lined design to absorb the amplitude correspondingforce, is not responsible for the axial stress. material Teflon (Teflon) dissecting fiberglass increase hardness, to consider the strong pH and hardness, PEEK is a good choice.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Sterile Technical Interpretation
Sterile Technical InterpretationMicro-giant BioEngineering  2009.06.19  To create and maintain sterile environment during the basic preprocess of microorganism (purebred) culture fermentation is the most important. To avoid bacteria interfere and affect the harvest rate, furthermore cause failure or variation (especially the secondary products of metabolism). To make a provision of sterile technical interpretation for equipment concern as follows:Ⅰ. No Blind Angle Design:Arc-shaped design no angle of all the wetted part inside the fermentor (fermenter,bioreacter,bioreactor), all the ports from the nearest stop valve or blind cover (neck) must be <2d (inner diameter). All the pipes with secondary SIP are required concept of sterilization buffer room, ex. sampling valve(tube), feeding tube, transfer tube, seal…etc. All wetted parts adopt diaphragm valve or least food or pharmaceutical sanitary valve (Note: still need to take care of the sterilization method.)。Ⅱ. Complete Sterilization:Sterilization basically using SIP. It’s using enthalpy inside the superheated steam to achieve the sterilization. If that’s CIP; must take care of sterilize concepts.Weather sterilze throughtly or not related to these four elements below:Tempture:SIP basically using 121℃(but if it’s for Thermophile spores, then it takes higher temp. with three times sterilization ), even higher temperature is easier to sterilize the bacteria, but still need to consider it might destroy medium nutrients.Pressure:The sterilize pressure generally set between 1.2 ~ 1.5kg/cm2, but still need to deliberate where actual pressure sensor placed(there are slightly differences between the top of the tank and exhaust). The “pressure” here emphasis on heating process, the temperature and the pressure rising symmetric synchronously. It might be cold air remain causes the sterilize effect if there’s variation.Time:Here means during sterilization after reach sterilize temperature, generally between 20~40 min(liquid fermentation). Note:If it drops below sterilize temperature during sterilization then it should be re-calculated and review the reason to avoid it.Flow:It would be a futile effort without flow even with temperature, pressure, time. The steam for sterilization needs to pull in from the top and make vent valve at the lowest spot (exclude cooling water), to make sure the sterilize effect of steam. Therefore all the pipes need sterilization need to install small vent valve(even sanitary drainer), T-type valve would be the best.Ⅲ. Maintain Positive Pressure  To ensure that the sterilization can be maintained, it is the key to keep positive pressure for the system from sterilization to harvest. Generally use filtered 0.2μm  sterile air to maintain. Therefore in case the power outage, thesterile equipmentsystem can still keep positive pressure for 12 hours or more, so all the auto valves (N.C. type)need to consider if the power outage happens.  First enter cooling section during sterilization, relief pressure too fast will easily cause sudden boiling and thus should adopt segmented relief cooling.  And cooling too quickly, there will be negative pressure doubt in parts, especially the exhaust spot. It can install exhaust filter to prevent the pollution of the adverse pressure. But it should be noted that the exhaust filter get wet easily then clogged. It shall retrofit the electric heating piece in the filter housing to avoid it.All rights reserved. Do not quote or copy without authorization.
Electrolytic polished stainless steel
Electrolytic polished stainless steel (Electro Polishing for Stainless Steel - EP)Micro-giant BioEngineering 2009.06.19Features:Stainless steel workpieces as the anode, is immersed in a special electrolyte energized, the workpiece surface is electrolyzed to obtain a smooth glossy surface, this method is called electrolytic polishing (Electro Polishing - EP) or electrochemical polishing (Electrochemical Polishing) orelectrolytic polishing (Electrolyte Polishing)1. With mechanical polishing comparison:ProjectMechanical polishingElectrolytic polishingShape and sizeCan handle large objects, such as tanks, but can not handle complex shapes, small parts and thinCan handle complex shapes, small parts and thin, but limited the electrolytic cell, deal with size restrictions generally less 1kL fermentor before electrolysis.Processing characteristicsCutting and grinding smooth shiny surface of the metal, stainless steel metal crystals cause deterioration and plastically deformedNot required polishing does not plastically deformedProcessing characteristicsLocal heating of organizational change and abrasive material and grease left on the metal surface, must be dealt with separately, in order to obtain clean surfaceThe finished clean surfaceCorrosion resistancePoorThe corrosion resistance of the polished surfaceLusterLighter, but more difficult to lastingGloss long durationEnvironmentDustNo2. With chemical polishing comparison:ProjectChemical polishingElectrolytic polishingChemicalsChemicalsUsing electricity instead. Electrolytic polishing longer bath life, long-term useEnvironmentPolluting gasesNoMetal surfaceGeneralMore lusterCorrosion resistancePoorThe polished surface of the good corrosion resistanceLusterPoorGloss long duration3. Range of applications and features:Electrolytic polished stainless steel in the manufacturing sector of the semiconductor industry and other instruments, kitchen, crafts valves, fittings, pipe fittings, seamless pipe, fluid control components such as stainless steel laser cutting workpiece, can be used to goIn addition to stainless steel laser cutting burr, clear the stainless steel surface oxide to obtain a smooth, clean surface to increase the workpiece corrosion resistance, reflectivity, and does not affect the size of the workpiece precision.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
DO oxygen-rich technical description
DO oxygen-rich technical descriptionMicro-giant BioEngineering  2009.06.19Process of microbial cultures for aerobic bacteria (some Chief aerobic bacteria, as the metabolic status), rich in a lot of oxygen is often at a certain stage of culture urgent needs, so the control strategy for the high dissolved oxygen (DO CASCADE) Provision DescriptionAs follows: (Note that the phenomenon is often accompanied by a large number of high-density fermentation foaming Foaming of troubled high dissolved oxygen)First, the speed:Liquid state fermentationprocess, the effective agitation can cause the quality can be transmitted quickly and also contains oxygen in the air is dissolved in the fermentation broth extent improve. Too high stirring speed will cause a sharp increase in the shear force (shear force), computer time increase or decrease the speed setting, and wait for a period of time, observed DO values change automatically corrected. And must be accompanied by the speed the lower limit set to define live variable factors be adjusted within a certain range, not unlimited increase or decrease the speed, only in order to meet DO set. However, if the upper limit is reached, not yet improve dissolved oxygen to the expected value of the program by setting automatic transfer to the next control strategies, such automatic transfer control strategy, but the object indirect object, such with "transfer" ; indirect control of the so-called CASCADE.Second, the ventilation:Improve ventilation, tend to be more direct and effective way.But increased to a certain extent, that showed significant slowing down, DO longer increase this to a certain value of the original hardware design of ventilation vvm, consider dispersing ability, bubble residence time, approaches, and body surface area, and other factors alone increaseventilation will have its limits, and easy to fueling the bubble generated become another major troubled projects. Therefore, by setting the upper and lower limits to find the appropriate amount of ventilation, if not yet reached the the DO target value, but can be controlled by "CASCADE" by the next control factor pursuit, so that timely and appropriate.Third, the tank pressure:Increase tank pressure, so that the bubble residence time increased. Tank pressure but often little can change the range (0.1 ~ 0.5kg/cm2), overvoltage adversely the growth of most microorganisms, only> 0.5kg/cm2 above the tank pressure to obvious substantial increase in DO, therefore strategies existing becoming no longer use.Fourth, oxygen:Suitable ventilation mode to "CASCADE" control last accompanied by O2 set, so can be reached on other control factors limit re-launch the Add O2 to achieve effective and energy-saving concept.O2 should be noted that the add sources of pressure setting O2 line shall be a general> Air line 0.2kg/cm2 and shall incorporate a check valve. Pure oxygen can not be directly into the fermentation tank, the gas mixer and the air to be added into a certain proportion of mixed and then enter the tank. Above the slender-slot design with the the aeration ring and decentralized fins (suitable diameter and number of segments) can indeed achieve dissolved oxygen evenly distributed.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Stainless steel chemical composition of Health and characteristics
The chemical and characterisitic of stainless steelObjective:Stainless steel pipe because of its ingredients it has the characteristics of anti-corrosion resistance in this chapter to explore and understand the ingredients on the characteristics of stainless steel stainless steel sanitary steel pipe components, to facilitate the public to understand the differences between the various materials Source of the chemical composition of the basis of the ROC.standard CNS.Types of stainless steel with the composition:A main component of stainless steel such as iron, the rest for the different proportions of the metal and carbon components, among which chromium (Cr)-largest modulated into a stainless steel according to different proportions of about 180 in the market, this emphasis on Austeniticstainless steel tube to explore the project to 304,304 L, 316,316 L, such stainless steel is the most common market, material stability, non-toxic, acid-alkali-resistant, non-magnetic, the community awareness stainless mostly such. Types of symbolsCSiMnPSNiCrMo304 TBS0.08↓1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓0.030↓8.00-10.5018.00-20.00-304L TBS0.030↓1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓0.030↓9.00-13.0018.00-20.00-316 TBS0.08↓3.5L1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓10.00-14.0016.00-18.002.00-3.00316L TBS0.030↓1.00↓2.00↓0.045↓0.030↓12.00-15.0016.00-18.002.00-3.00Type of metalCharacteristicChromium(Cr)Significantly increase the electrode potential of the steel base, improve the corrosion resistance of the anti-telephony, but not a linear relationship, chromium must be accounted for 12% party allows change in electrode potential. The chrome and steel alloy composition can be formed in the outer layer the densification of Cr2O3, to protect the interior from oxidation at room temperature, a sufficient amount of Cr-Ni-base steel can be obtained at room temperature with a single phase of ferrite or the single-phase austenite.Nickel(Ni)304 containing 8% Ni, and 316 containing 10% nickel component will be more durable and corrosion resistant stainless steel, the place pollution or pharmaceutical constant contact, multi 316L as the material.Carbon(C)Carbon steel enhancements can be, but conversely the deterioration of mechanical degrees, will enable the stainless steel can be heat-treated low-carbon, also can make steel more corrosion.Molybdenum(Mo)Add molybdenum its special structure, it with resistance to chloride corrosion, can be used for high salt, beach or chemical the easy government food environment.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
The passivation treatment of stainless steel
The passivation treatment of stainless steel(Passivation treatment)Micro-Giant BioEngineering 2003.10.241. Austenitic stainless steel passivation treatment:All 300 series chrome-nickel stainless steel can be used, except for only 303 and 303 Se.20 ~ 40% HNO3 (capacity), a temperature of 130 to 160 ° F, 30 to 60 minutes.Exclusively for the 303 and 303 Se use 20% HNO3 (capacity) of sodium dichromate (weight) plus 2%, temperature 110 ~ 130 ° F, 30 minutes. Removed after cleaning, are used for the following processing. Immersed in 140 to 160 ° F, 5% (by weight) solution of sodium dichromate, 1 hour, taken out, completely washed in hot water, and dried.2. Ferrite stainless steel passivation:430,442 and 446 using 20 ~ 40%HNO3 (capacity), a temperature of 130 to 160 ° F, 30 to 60 minutes of time.405,430 F, and 430F Se using 20 ~ 40% HNO3 (capacity), a temperature of 110 to 130 ° F, time 30 to 60 minutes.The highly polished 405,430,442 and 446 using 50% HNO3 (capacity), the temperature of 90 ~ 100 ° F, 30 to 60 minutes of time. After removing completely in hot water washed, and dried.3. Matian race stainless steel passivation:403,410,414,420,431,440 A, 440B and 440C of the use of immersion at room temperature, 70% HNO3 (capacity) for 30 to 60 minutes, or immersed in the 70 to 112 ° F, 20 to 30% HNO3 (capacity meter)plus 2% (by weight) sodium dichromate or dichromate solution of potassium, 15 to 30 minutes. After removing washed in hot water and dried.16dedicatedimmersedina15%(capacity)nitrate,per 10President - elect1-1/2poundssulfuriccavernsolution,atemperatureof110to125 °F,thetime15 to 30 minutesafter removing thewashed and driedin hot waterof.Allstainlesssteelmartensiteracecan be usedimmersedina120to130 °F,50%(capacity meter) HNO3,for 5 minutes.After removingwashedin hot waterand dried.Note:Thisrapidprocessingmethod,various types ofstainless steelcan be used,there is noetching(etching)concerns.<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
Stainless steel containers for different sulfuric acid concentration of anti-etching
The concentration of sulfuric acid corrosion of stainless steelCai Chung Exceed Edited byOne.Objective:  Stainless steel for most acid and alkali resistance, such as nitric acid and acetic acid, sulfuric acid was able to stainless steel caused by erosion, with the concentration of sulfuric acid for stainless steel has a different impact of erosion, the stainless steel of different composition are also differences, this is mainlydiscuss different concentrations of sulfuric acid for stainless steel 304 and 316L impact, and how to prevent sulfuric acid erosion of stainless steel.304: General Model; 18/8 stainless steel. The country of China signage 06Cr19Ni10, and to replace the previous 0Cr18Ni9. The standard components of the 18% of chromium plus 8% nickel. Can not be changed by the heat treatment method magnetic structure of stainless steel microstructure. (1)316L: 316L: 316 to 304, the second most widely used in steel species, mainly for the food industry andsurgical equipment, addingmolybdenumto obtain a corrosion resistant special structure. 18/10 stainless steel usually meet the application level. Special corrosive environment, ship assembly, building materials for the chemical, seaside. 316L-low carbon more corrosion. 316L stainless steel in a sulfuric acid concentration of less than 15% or greater than 85% of the normal? State, good corrosion resistance. At 80 degrees or more, have a certain? Volatility, its corrosion resistance is greatly decreased. 316L stainless steel in 45% dilute sulfuric acid medium corrosion resistance than? Poor, and again certain? Degree of fluctuation in the corrosion even worse.Three.Sulfuric acid used in the industry:Sulfuric acid as a strong corrosive medium, sulfuric acid is a highly versatile industrial raw materials. But different concentrations and the temperature of sulfuric acid, corrosion of materials vary greatly, for a concentration of more than 85%, the temperature is less than 80 ° C, concentrated sulfuric acid, carbon steel and cast iron has a better corrosion resistance, but it is not suitable for high-speed flow of sulfuric acid ; ordinary stainless steel, such as 304,316 sulfuric acid medium of limited use.Transporting sulfuric acid is usually high silicon cast iron, high alloy stainless steel.The fluorine plastic has good resistance to sulfuric performance Fluorine manufacturing is a more economical choice. Ceramic coating for testing, the results show good resistance to dilute sulfuric acid's ability to, but the high cost of ceramic cost, must be the consideration of cost.Four.Conclusion:Concentrations ranged from 15-85% of the sulfuric acid solution, a high degree of erosion for the stainless steel, wherein 316L tolerated than 304, but will be eroded, temperature erosion has the effect of strengthening the learned information for Liningmanufacturing and ceramic cladding, but past experience fluorine will drop the inner layer of stainless steel erosion, ceramic has good ability of resist, but the cost will be a consideration of one.Source:(1)Wikipedia Blog!PqicSU.fER.58omp8oo-/article?mid=69(3)Baidu know cid=985&index=4&fr2=query後段製程生產設備<All rights reserved. Do not copy or quote with authorization.>
【蒸汽熱水回收系統使用於醱酵製程之探討】Micro-Giant Bioengineering 許志明著 2013.11.6設備成本增加,使用時機不多:要增加熱水回收槽及高溫泵,所有冷凝回收管都須配置,投資成本加大。使用時機僅在本殺滅菌及醱酵槽溫控用,實效不大,設備回收慢。增加高溫回水管路配置:所有滅菌管線之冷凝水須另行增加高溫回收管及附件(Trip)增加系統空間,操作不便。有背壓,易造成滅菌不完全疑慮。高溫回水管,內易有Medium,沸騰或表面驟沸現象揮發物,易造成高溫回水系統故障。   綜上考量,在醱酵製程要使用蒸汽熱水回收系統須全盤規劃,審慎考量。   <版權所有,未經授權不得轉載部分或全文。>
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